The eyeshine process is a surgical procedure used that allows the receiver to see better in darker environments. Apparently Richard B. Riddick had the procedure (although other factors seem involved in his case).
During the surgery a synthetic hydro-luminecent film applied to the interior rear wall of the retina. Only .2% of the recipients of this operation survive it, and only .0005% of the survivors ever regain vision. The patient receives the ability to see in the dark, and a distinctive shine in their eyes!